I always remember when I was at college, one of the text books we used was ‘Introduction to Psychology’ by Rita & Richard Atkinson book where they spoke about the human brain containing 12 billion nerve cells. Estimates today put it more like 100 billion neurons, 500-1 trillion Glia cells and 100 trillion synapses. I don’t know about you but I can’t even visualise what that network wiring would look like, not even a collection of all the spider webs on one continent would cut it. Does medical research really believe that blocking a few pathways and inhibiting a few enzymes are going to solve extremely complex cognitive dysfunctions with a handful of drugs without serious consequences, and do they honestly think that the immense complexity of the brain is going to allow it?
Even the animal kingdom have a better perception of nature, existing in its infinite power and sense of purpose. As Liam Hudson wrote in his book (another reference book I used) Contrary Imaginations ‘Man’s capacity for intelligent thought is one of nature’s most astonishing phenomena-and we might reasonably expect that a science devoted to its study should prove commensurately fascinating’. Yet psychiatry (a scientific study of the mind) has been boiled down into creating ridiculous dysfunctional conditions regarded as normal 20 years ago, and peddling mind altering drugs to cure nothing. Furthermore, the arrogance of the psychopharmacology industry to target the neuron for chemical therapies and simply ignore the crucial role of the glia cell (or Neuroglia) and its crucial role in brain function, even though neuroglia constitute half the volume of the brain.
Although we have taken many steps backward in true healing because of our corrupt society, we have taken some steps forward in our understanding in biology. One time the immense, almost infinite, meshed network of the multifunctional family of Glia cells ( with a special acknowledgments to Rudolf Virchow, Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Pio del Rio-Hortega) was thought to be non-functional glue (Glia is Greek for Glue) for neurons, but as we now know to be a major crucial infrastructure to the Brain and the central nervous system (CNS). However, there is still much to be learned, unfortunately, also by the criminal empire of Pharmacology. The brain is a giant series of Neural networks made from four major Glia cells 1) Microglia, 2)Astrocytes, 3) Oligodendrocytes 4) Ependymal or epithelial cells and neurons. The diagram 1 below depicts the various functions of these cells.
Astrocyte functions: the most abundant cell that form the structure like scaffolding for the brain and the central nervous system. Since these cells are capable of forming a scaffolding support function they are also able to confine an injury site by ‘walling-off’ the location to allow repair to be completed. Other Astrocyte functions include maintaining biological balance ( homeostasis ) for the the fluid in between all of the cells ( interstitial fluid ) that contain a balanced content of potassium ions to ensure neuron functional efficiency. Furthermore since neurons have very little capability to store nutrients they rely on the Astrocyte ( that stores Glycogen) to secrete lactate into the interstitial fluid providing glucose and oxygen to the neuron to create energy ( adenosine triphosphate ATP). The Astrocyte end feet are connected to the blood brain barrier acting as a security access preventing unwanted molecules from the bloodstream to enter the brain and/or the CNS. Their final function is to clear the synaptic junctions of used neurotransmitter substances preparing the synapse for the next communication.
The Microglia cells are a 2 state cell; Resting and Active. In their resting state that are constantly monitoring the interstitial fluid for dead, foreign or damaged cells, once it encounters any one of that is either non functional or foreign it changes state and becomes active into a phagocytic Macrophage whose job it is to consume them and clean up the space. This is achieved by the Microglia that secretes a cytotoxic substance (e.g Reactive oxygen species ROS) that kills the cell and turns it into debris which is what the microglia consume. Typically, this event would occur during an inflammatory response caused by an invading foreign cell or an infection. Once the microglia has consumed the pieces of dead or damaged cell debris (Antigens) it presents these pieces on the outside of its cell body and releases cytokines (chemical messages) to invite other immune cells like lymphocytes ( that release immunoglobulins or Antigens) to join the inflammation party. As we explained in the article Microbiome and Immune system….with their cargo of processed antigens the dendritic cells traffic themselves to the T Cell lymphocyte regions and upon encounter with the T cells they present their cargo of antigen particles to the surface of the T cells which are then activated by the dendritic cells and converted into immunomodulatory cells called regulatory T Cells ( TRegs ).
It is presumed that the Microglia act like the antigen presenting dendritic cells, so once other immune system cells receive their cytokine party invitations they arrive, the final steps to eradicate the inflammation are completed as is what happens in rest of the body and again explained in the same article ‘Microbiome and the Immune system’…The Neutrophil recruits clear the invading bacteria or food particle, which is achieved by a special weapon in its arsenal a ‘Neutrophil Intracellular Trap’ providing a local concentration of anti-microbial components to bind, disarm and kill the invaders extracellularly, independent of phagocytic uptake, as well as preventing the spread of further pathogenic activity. At this point the assault is repulsed and any remaining Neutrophils die off through apoptosis ( a non inflammatory cell death, but in this case probably via the Opsonin process again to tempt the Macrophage appetite ). The site is cleaned up by Macrophages ( an immune cell ‘janitor’ and also a phagocyte that engulfs and digests cellular debris, microbes..basically anything other than healthy body cells .
From Diagram 2 the ependymal cells actually form a pipe for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that travel through the Ventricular system, Brain and Spinal cord. The actual cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the Choroid plexus by modified ependymal cells shown in the midbrain region on the diagram, and is absorbed at the top of the brain in the arachnoidal granulation region. Since the ependymal cell barrier, housing the cerebrospinal fluid is permeable, like the tight junctions in the gut epithelium, this fluid provides nutrients for the brain and dispels metabolic waste products (this is the brains lymphatic drainage system that disposes the waste into the bloodstream) . Not only does the cerebrospinal fluid provide nutrients and act as a waste disposal medium, is also provides a mechanical protective cushion ( a shock absorber ) and immunological protection. In addition, because of the brains incredible design, the CSF acts as a fluid suspension for the brain, whose actual mass is about 1400-1500 grams, converted via the fluid suspension into an equivalent mass of 25-50 grams, to avoid impairment of the brains own weight, which would inevitably cut off blood supply and kill neurons in the lower sections of the brain. At any one time there is approximately 123 ml of CSF and approx 500 ml (25 ml/hour) is generated every day.
While Astrocytes provide structural scaffolding support, the Oligodendrocytes provide electrical insulation for axons which are the slender projections of neurons or nerve fibers. There is another cell called the Schwann cell that provide the same function but in the peripheral nervous system as opposed to the Oligodendrocytes that are confined to the central nervous system. Unlike Schwann cells that have a 1:1 ratio of cell to axon, the Oligodendrocytes provide a 50:1 ratio of axons to cells.
Diagram 2 Ependymal cells and Cerebrospinal fluid
You are probably wondering why I have detailed all of this biology. Simple, for the body to function as it does, everything we do during our daily activities, work, leisure, relies on this incredible interconnectivity between neurons and glia cells providing us the capacity to do sports, protect us when we touch something hot or cold etc. Remember we all have 100 billion neurons, 500-1 trillion Glia cells and 100 trillion synapses..give or take a few million between individuals…lol. That is ( excuse me for my expression) a ‘shit ‘load of connections that function, die-off, replaced, protected without any interruption to the functioning organism, every day of your life…UNLESS YOU PUT INTO YOUR MOUTH A PSYCHOTROPIC POISON. The most shameless, criminal activity is for pharmacological science to boil down the immense functionality into a bunch of synapses that they can inhibit or stimulate and cause incredible damage and diminish people’s life span for nothing.
Professor Norman: One hundred billion neurons per human of which only fifteen percent are activated. There are more connections in the human body than there are stars in the galaxy. We possess a gigantic network of information to which we have almost no access.
Female Student: Sir?
Professor Norman: Yes?
Female Student: And what would be the next stage?
Professor Norman: Well, the next stage would probably be control of other people. But for that, we would need to access at least forty percent of our brain’s capacity. After control of ourselves and others, would come control of matter. But now we’re entering into the realm of science fiction and we don’t know any more than the dog who watches the moon.
Male Student #2: Excuse me, sir?
Professor Norman: Yes.
Male Student #2: But, what would happen if for some reason we ignore, somebody unlocked one hundred percent of the cerebral capacity?
Professor Norman: One hundred percent?
Male Student #2: Yes.
Professor Norman: I have no idea.
Lucy: I read your theory on the use of the brain’s capacity. It’s a little rudimentary but you’re on the right track.
Professor Norman: Thank you.
Lucy: Professor, my cells are reproducing at a phenomenal speed. Several million per second. And I’m having trouble precisely evaluating the time of my death but I doubt I’ll last more than twenty-four hours.
Professor Norman: What are you talking about?
Lucy: What I’m saying is that your theory is not a theory. I absorbed a large quantity of synthetic CPH4 that will allow me to use a hundred percent of my cerebral capacity. Right now, I’m at twenty-eight percent. And what you wrote is true, once the brain reaches twenty percent it opens up and expands the rest, there are no more obstacles. They fall away like dominoes. I’m colonizing my own brain.
[Norman looks visibly dumbstruck]
Professor Norman: Uh, well, I…I don’t know what to say. It’s true, I…I’ve been working on this theory for over twenty years. But it’s…it’s only…only ever been hypothesis and research ideas. I never thought anyone would…
Check out the Previous Articles in this series:
- Rethinking Psychiatric drugs Grace Jackson Book 2005
- Cerebrospinal fluid, Glia cells, ependymal cells Wikipedia
- Contrary imaginations Liam Hudson Book 1974
- ‘Introduction to Psychology’ Rita & Richard Atkinson, Ernest Hilgard Book 1983
- Neuroglia Khan Academy
- Movie quote LUCY 2014 Moviequotesandmore
About The Author: Eric Malouin
In terms of my heritage I am not a thoroughbred, I am half English from England and half French Canadian from Quebec. Having spent the last 10 years in Medical research I thought that it was time to share my passion for true health to anybody interested in maintaining health without using conventional medicine. Once in the distant past I lived off conventional grocery shelves until you visit the man in the white coat and then a light shines through the darkness that you had not realized you were in… I was in..the twilight zone….I cured my own problems using natural methods, although they were not a big deal since I have always exercised..jogging every morning and tennis 12 hours/week, swimming but I was eating a lot of devil food that was causing my body to become unbalanced..an easy fix..reprogrammed my taste buds and gave the food back to the devil…lol
I hope you enjoy the articles……
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