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Introduction

In the previous article we discussed several scientific hypothesis that explains the cause of Alzheimer’s from the APOE gene allele combination of E3/E4 or E4/E4, and/or the serine protease enzyme encoded by gene HTRA1 that prevents the fragmentation of the ApoE4 glycoprotein, and not clearing the brain of  Tau protein fragments. Another hypothesis is that the ApoE4 gene(s) is mutant, but I would submit if this was the cause or what is more likely a symptom, that the genes are not mutant but are turned off or not read accurately due to a toxic load scenario.  We also looked at the build-up of amyloid β protein ApoE4 deposits that destroy brain cells,  interfering with neuron communication, causing nerve cells to develop neurofibrillary tangles that affect the transportation of nutrients into the cells.

However, we did talk about the new study that  uncovered evidence that the amyloid β protein that is deposited in the form of amyloid β plaques in the brains of Alzheimer patients is a normal part of the innate immune system protecting the brain against infection.  We also highlighted the fact that science chooses to ignore radical changes in the environment  (excessive pesticide use on crops because nutrients that plants need to protect themselves are missing, and synthetic alteration of seed composition) that has occurred within the period of 1940 -1970 ( when Alzheimer’s was not recognised as a disease process), the availability of processed food, the increase of low fat diets and vaccines, and the widespread prescriptions of cholesterol lowering drugs. Not only has many chronic diseases like cancer, autoimmune exploded in the last 30 years but Alzheimer’s and other cognitive disorders like autism, ADHD, Schizophrenia, Epilepsy has to.


Today’s Alzheimer’s breakthrough discovery

Apart from the studies already mentioned the latest study conducted in December 2017, came to light in an article that appeared in the leading newspaper entitled ‘Vulnerable set of immune cells – paving the way to a cure’.   The article begins by stating that Alzheimer’s disease is caused by immune cells in the brain triggered by inflammation. Experiments found that destroying microglia cells reduces the formation of amyloid β that produce Alzheimer’s. They go on to say that rogue proteins are believed to be at the root of this disease.  Professor Michael Heneka at the University of Bonn Germany said that amyloid β plaques are fuelled by inflammation, and found the microglia cells release protein particles called ASC which stick to the  amyloid β proteins. ASC reside in a vital inflammatory pathway called NLRP3 inflammasome which damages brain cells.

Understanding the study results

Let us stop there for a moment..why would our perfectly designed defense system convert our neurons into spaghetti as a result of a normal inflammatory response ?.   If the normal clearance process of the Microglia ( macrophage clean-up crew of the brain) ‘went on strike’ caused by a biological imbalance then the amyloid β proteins, put there as a natural defense strategy of the innate immune system, to ward off infection and cellular damage, would build up resulting in neuronal dysfunction.  This would also result in a dysfunction of the natural inflammatory system pack called the NLRP3 inflammasome which I suppose ‘go rogue‘ ( as mentioned above ‘rogue proteins’) and it is plausible that cellular damage to brain cells could occur.  What is unclear from the article is when it states that, by destroying Microglia cells it reduces the formation of the  amyloid β proteins..as I said above if the macrophage clean-up crew ‘went on strike’, it would provide the same result as destroying the microglia cells, then the amyloid β proteins would increase not reduce.


The brain and the immune system

For many years medical science believed that the brain was ‘immunologically privileged’ meaning that it could tolerate invading pathogens and toxins because it was thought that the brain was far more vulnerable to a the torrent of immune activity that the body stirs up to protect the host. This erroneous hypothesis was substantiated due to ( what was thought to be) the absence of  a lymphatic drainage system which in the body proper returns intracellular fluid to the bloodstream. Under normal circumstances immune cells congregate along this lymphatic drainage system residing in Lymph node clusters in the neck, armpits, abdomen and groin. Lymphocytes ( immune system white blood cells ) travel throughout the body in blood vessels and the lymphatic vessels that run in parallel with veins and arteries, like floating security guards patrolling for foreign pathogenic invaders.  

The Brains lymphatic system

There is a network of lymphatic vessels within the brain located in the Meninges ( a 3 layer membrane that surround the brain and spinal cord referred to as Dura Mater, Archnoid Mater and Pia Mater as shown in diagram 1 below).  Similiar to the body’s lymphatic system, the lymphatic vessels located in the Meninges shuttle fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid to a group of lymph nodes in the neck, called the deep cervical lymph nodes, located near the internal jugular vein ( of the 800 lymph nodes in the body 300 are found in the neck).

Diagram 1 The Brain’s lymphatic drainage system Meninges(Dura Mater,Arachnoid,Pia Mater)

 


Neuroinflammation

Microglia

We discussed the various brain cells in The destruction of Society’s social fabric and anti-psychotic drugs Part 10 article, and I have recreated the diagram below:

The Microglia cells are a 2 state cell; Resting and Active.  In their resting state that are constantly monitoring the interstitial fluid for dead, foreign or damaged cells, once it encounters any cell that is either non functional or foreign it changes state and becomes active into a phagocytic Macrophage designed to consume them and clean up the space. This is achieved by the Microglia that secrete a cytotoxic substance (e.g Reactive oxygen species ROS) that kills the cell and turns it into debris which is what the microglia consume.  Typically, this event would occur during an inflammatory response caused by an invading foreign cell or an infection. Once the microglia has consumed the pieces of dead or damaged cell debris (Antigens) it presents these pieces on the outside of its cell body and releases cytokines ( chemical messages) to invite other immune cells like lymphocytes ( that release immunoglobulins or Antigens) to join the inflammation party.

In a healthy brain environment Microglia maintain an intimate relationship with neurons clearing aberrant proteins, which are the rogue proteins that the scientists at Bonn i believe are referring to. If the Microglia do not do their job efficiently, typically caused by microbiome imbalance, emanating from the gut, this will affect the immune system overall including the immune system cells within the brain such as the microglia macrophage cells. In the study from the university of Bonn it states:  Alzheimer’s disease is caused by immune cells in the brain triggered by inflammation.  I assume they are referring to the Microglia cells that fail to destroy compromised cells during an inflammatory response.  In fact in Alzheimer’s it is the amyloid β proteins and fibers that are not cleared because of a continuous inflammatory condition that induce lysosomal damage ( lysosomes functions consist of plasma membrane repair, cell signalling, energy metabolism and waste disposal that digest enzymatically unwanted materials in the cytoplasm fluid inside the cell as well as outside the cell).

The NLRP3/ASC Inflammasome

When brain neurons become compromised, or substances like toxins or other foreign matter is detected, this triggers an NLRP3 inflammasome in the microglia as part of the innate immune system design.  So what is an NLRP3 inflammasome ?. The innate immune system is activated by antigen detection, and the immune system cells have a receptor on their surface or within the cell itself called a Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR) that recognise Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS).  Depending upon the a multitude of signals that pose a threat to brain homeostasis i.e type of cell and environmental signal sensed by the Microglia, PPR’s will engage Toll like receptors; Scavenger receptors ( that regulate the uptake of oxidized proteins. Lipids and apoptotic cells), or intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLR), expressed predominantly by Macrophages ( Microglia ), encoded by the NLRP3 gene. Either receptor that detects a threat springs into action.  The inflammasome refers to an inflammatory complex consisting of the PPR complex and the Apoptosis Associated Speck-like (ASC) protein that deals with a normal inflammatory response.

Toxicity

‘Nutritional imbalances and deficiencies.  Brain function can be strongly influenced by what we orally consume: some foods promote brain health, and others can erode it over time. Diets that contain brain boosting foods and supplements have been shown to preserve and restore healthy brain function.’

Monosodium Glutamate, synthetic preservatives, sweeteners, dyes, colourings, refined sugar, non-fermented soy are all poisonous and toxic to the body. Transitional flora which are non-fermenting gram negative bacilli microbes that we ingest daily from food and drink generally go through the digestive tract without doing any harm providing our beneficial flora is healthy.  Our healthy gut flora has the ability to neutralise nitrates, indoles,phenols, skatole xenobiotics, inactivate histamine, chelate heavy metals, absorb carcinogens and even suppress hyperplastic processes that are the basis for all cancer formation. However within a dysbiotic gut casein from diary and gluten from wheat become toxic and poisonous to the body, since they cannot be digested properly these peptides turn into opiate like substances.  Opportunistic flora can produce excess histamine called Histadelia *, amines such as dimethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine and more are produced by bacteria, causing depression, withdrawal symptoms, emotional abnormalities. Chemical groups such as kryptopyrroles are associated with mental dysfunction.

* People with high histamine levels or Histadelia may be due to a metabolic imbalance ( possibly from under methylation within the liver).  If this occurs symptoms can reveal psychological, behavioural and cognitive dysfunction since this condition interferes with methylation of neurotransmitter synthesis. Individuals may have low calcium. Magnesium, methionine ( needed for methylation), Vitamin B6, with excessive levels of Folic acid.  Excessive histamine levels shows itself by expressing such conditions as Asthma, vasomotor rhinitis ( non allergic irritation of the nose membranes and blood vessel dilation), allergic skin, excess stomach acid production, saliva,tears, nasal,bronchial secretions, headache, and fatigue ( since histamine opposes adrenalin )

Alcoholism without alcohol

Opportunistic flora overgrowth ( that we have covered in more detail in the articles on the microbiome) can also metabolise sulphate into sulphites which are toxic to the body robbing the body of much needed sulphate ( needed to metabolise neurotransmitters, and for detox purposes), but it also converts the sulphate into a toxic hydrogen sulphide gas.  Ethanol and Acetaldehyde are toxic alcohol by-products manufactured by yeast (Candida) overgrowth, when feasting on a carbohydrate meal consumed by the host. Due to the small molecular weight of these alcohol by-products it can easily cross the blood brain barrier. Acetaldehyde has a property to alter protein structure creating autoimmune conditions,( such as Multiple sclerosis (MS) ).

An example of a common protein is the protein synthesis for myelin, and  by altering a naturally occurring protein the body does not recognize it anymore and launches an immune response to attack what the body considers a foreign protein causing the demyelinating of brain neurons damaging the brains neuronal nerve cells and spinal cord, which could easily manifest itself into a precursor for dementia. What are one of the main characteristics of MS..the formation of lesions or scars in the central nervous system and the other name used for these lesions are Plaques. Science already knows that MS involves the loss of Oligodendrocytes, the cells responsible for creating and maintaining the myelin insulation for neurons. The body attempts to repair the damage but if the origin of the assault is not halted then damage will continue unabated ( the 1,000 cuts principle). Inflammation is an obvious consequence, which, if continuous will incur further damage and in turn the Blood brain barrier is breached allowing more invaders to cross into the brain adding to the cascade of damage. A study completed in 2008 compared autopsy tissue taken from 45 MS cases, 9 AD cases and 15 control subjects and this is what they found:

Profound microglia activation, determined by a broad spectrum of markers, was found in both MS and AD cortices, and the patterns of microglia activation were closely similar. Microglia activation in MS cortex, in contrast with that in AD and control cortex, correlated with lymphocyte and plasma-cell infiltrates in the meninges. MS cases older than 64 years experienced development of AD pathology in comparable incidence as seen in the course of normal aging. The density of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles did not differ between demyelinated and nondemyelinated cortical areas.

Myelin

Myelin is comprised of different cell types, but Schwann cells supply the Myelin for the peripheral nervous system, while oligodendrocytes myelinate the axons of the central nervous system. The Myelin is a fatty white substance that acts as an electrical insulator for neurons in the brain, being a major part of the ‘white matter’ in the brain. Cholesterol is an essential part of Myelin, comprised of 40% water, between 60%-70% lipids ( fats) and between 15%-25% protein. Insulating neurons in this way increase impulse propagation speeds. The body can handle a severed peripheral fibre by the regrowth of an alternative track, but if the Myelin sheath begins degrading due to lack of nutrients and/or cholesterol it is much more difficult for the body to apply repair, especially if the nutrient/cholesterol deficiency continues over time, the neurons cannot regenerate.

Deltorphins , Dermorphins and Sauvagine

Dr Alan Friedman a biochemist working for Johnson & Johnson isolated 2 very potent neurotoxins Deltorphins and Dermorphins inside urine samples taken from autistic children. I have mentioned them here in the context of Alzheimer’s since both Autism and Alzheimer’s share particular common associations such as memory deficiency, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, language impairment, executive and motor dysfunction, which are all integral to both disorders.  Dermorphins as the name suggests is a natural morphogenic peptide opiate, 30-40 times more potent than morphine which is released by a fungus that grows in the dysbiotic gut of the autistic child and also on the back of a South American frog ( as a defensive mechanism I presume) where it was first found. This substance according to Wikipedia has been used illegally in horse racing as performance enhancing drug, killing any strenuous pain the horse might have to make it run faster.

Del Torphins like Dermorphins elicit acute and chronic activation of opioid receptors which have a knock-on affect on the Stress (HPA) axis, since they suppress cortisol secretion and decreased secretion of the Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) of the hypothalamus affecting the secretion of the Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which ultimately affects the production of Thyroxine (T4 the storage hormone) and Triiodothyronine (T3 the energy hormone).  This could trigger DTSF ( Decreased Thyroid System Function ) and cognitive dysfunction such as depression. This opioid receptor interference can potentially decrease gastric acid secretion ( the hypothesis put forward to explain this phenomena is Secretin deficiency. Secretin is a ( precursor protein) hormone secreted by the intestinal lining that influences the chemical environment of the duodenum ( small intestine) by regulating secretions into the stomach, pancreas and liver. Secretin regulates the PH of the duodenum by inhibiting gastric acid from the stomach and stimulating bicarbonate from the pancreas in order for pancreatic enzymes to work.  Secretin is released in response to a low duodenal PH (2-4.5), but in the autistic individual the PH does not go low enough to trigger the release of secretin This is caused by the opioid receptors located in the gut wall, especially the submucosal plexus that is responsible for GI motility and secretion, that has been compromised by the Deltorphins and Dermorphins opiate like neurotoxins.

Opioid neurotoxins also have an immunosuppressive effect on T-cell proliferation, and the Cyclic AMP (CAMP *) messenger system which is also decreased because the opioid-like invader takes over the body’s natural opioid receptor inactivating Adenylate cyclase, which in turn lowers phosphorylation of the tryptophan hydroxylase enzyme required for tryptophan to serotonin conversion. Recent research shows that lower CAMP signalling dysregulates the ion channels in the Prefrontal cortex shutting down the brain from communication.  There are other biological problems associated with Autism/Alzheimer’s that are beyond the scope of this article.

* CAMP – Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, derived from ATP ( Adenosine Triphosphate ), our cells energy powerhouse, is a cellular secondary messenger system that manipulates cell plasma membranes to benefit from hormonal effects provided by Glucagon and adrenaline which ordinarily are unable to pass through. It is also involved with glycogen,sugar and lipid metabolism regulation and with its associated kinases enzyme function for phosphorylation as described above.


So what is going on ??

 

As Conan Doyle wrote from one of his Sherlock Holmes novels ‘A study in Scarlet’ 1887:

I  consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has a difficulty in laying his hands upon it. Now the skillful workman is very careful indeed as to what he takes into his brain-attic. He  will have nothing but the tools which may help him in doing his work, but of these he has a large assortment, and all in the most perfect order. It is a mistake to think that this little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for any addition of knowledge, you forget something that you knew before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.

Conventional Medicine Mysticism

I think we have enough scientific information to make some useful deductions.  For me, mainstream medicine has confirmed that the amyloid β protein that is deposited in the form of amyloid β plaques in the brains of Alzheimer patients is a normal part of the innate immune system protecting the brain against infection.  Conventional medicine have been saying for years that this tangled spaghetti like mass of neurons is what’s causing the Alzheimer’s condition because neuronal signal transmission has been severely compromised.   I think we all agree on these 2 points, but then conventional medicine go off into the mystical world of medicine by blaming genes AGAIN, claiming either we have the ApoE4 gene, worse still if it exists as an E4 allele on both M/F Chromosomes, or that this gene is mutant.  Other scientists blame the HTRA1 gene that expresses the serine protease enzyme which is responsible for fragmenting the Apolipoprotein expressed by the gene ApoE4/E3, responsible for transporting  fats, cholesterol and vitamins throughout the body, because the enzyme becomes bound to the Apolipoprotein, and thus unable to do its job.  

Presentation of the first Alzheimer patient

The human blueprint has remained unchanged for a millenia, so why all of a sudden after 1976 Alzheimer’s had been on the rise to the point where the 50 million people are suffering with it today. Compared to one incidence found in a woman called Auguste Deter 51 ( died in 1906 at age 56) by Dr Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) a German psychiatrist/neuropathologist discovering during her autopsy, the hallmark neuronal spaghetti.  Since this was a first time discovery of such a condition he named it Alzheimer’s. During a Tubingen meeting of psychiatrists in November 1906 Alzheimer presented this pathology of senile dementia, but no one was interested since they all were eagerly awaiting for the next speaker whose topic was ‘Compulsory Masturbation’. Twelve more cases were discovered by 1907. We now appreciate ( at least some of us who are not allopathic physicians) the remarkable intelligence of the body and the flexibility of gene expression referred to as Epigenetic switching where the body uses a multiple of factors including environmental signals to choose how it expresses a gene.

Poisoned animal husbandry 

Obviously huge environmental changes have been made since 1906, agriculture/farming is conducted on an industrial level turning natural processes like animal husbandry and conventional agriculture without the use of chemical pesticides, fungicides etc to an adulterated poisonous process unfit for human consumption; sick animals being plyed with antibiotics and bovine growth hormones. Chickens kept in cages the size of a piece of A4 paper, plus an extra postcard sized piece allowing them to scratch and nest.   Beak clipping to prevent birds pecking each other ( since they are obviously ‘pissed off’ from the cramp living conditions), and their primary sense organ is removed ( not specified). A poisonous bacteria Campylobacter infesting these unhealthy birds are infecting consumers ( In 2013 580,000 in the UK alone, killing 140). The birds are being reared unnaturally by injecting water and sodium to puff out its breast to the point where the bird is unable to support its own body weight so it squats in its own feces which then infect its legs ( go into a supermarket and look at the chickens and see if you can spot any dark red patches called hock burn on the leg around the knee joint). The chickens are fed with food that contains a binder which is formadelhyde.   Industrially raised cows are also very sick including their milk which has come from a cow with mastitis ( inflammation of its udders ) because its being treated with a bovine growth hormone to increase milk yield and expanding their udders to bursting point. The shear rivers of waste from the huge industrial animals complexes run into the ground and waterways infecting everything and killing other natural wildlife.

Poisoned Agricultural lands

Years ago agriculture land was cultivated for 6 years and then left to rest ( fallow) for 1 growing season allowing the land to replenish its nutrients and top soil.   Now the cultivation continues without this soil resting period ,causing the land to become less arable and nutrient deficient. As a consequence plants that grow on these lands are unable to defend themselves from insects and blight because their much needed nutrients are simply not in the soil anymore, so the farmers sprays everything with chemicals to kill the plant invaders.

Poisonous processed food supply

The government has given the food companies carte blanche to flood the food markets with poisonous ( to our bodies) processed food; there is a huge market for adulterated honey mixed with synthetic syrup.  The fast food industry is using the same processed food model as the processed food industry that is also supplying them. To maintain their thin margins most other non-fast food restaurants are using substandard non organic ingredients.  Kids are going to school with epinephrine pens that they can inject if they eat something they are allergic to. So-called experts in nutrition are scratching their heads trying to figure out what’s causing this allergy tsunami; some have identified our gut flora attempting to isolate microbial changes that may be causing the allergy eruptions…are these people completely stupid..just fix the complete  flora ecosystem..its not individual bacterial colonies… its an overgrowth of the pathogenic flora. One man with a severe peanut allergy ordered an Indian take out meal in the UK which killed him, since the restaurant was using peanuts to prepare Chicken Korma instead of almonds because peanuts are cheaper. The restaurant owner was prosecuted and is now serving 6 years for manslaughter…any way I digress.

Poisonous drugs and Lipid war

The mass population are listening to their family physician and taking the poisons ( to the body) they are being prescribed, including the cholesterol lowering drugs to quench the mass hysteria from another medical fairytale that cholesterol clogs arteries..even a doctor I play tennis with takes them.  Furthermore, to help save them from mass extinction from the fat  (Lipid) menace, people are choosing low fat products, starving themselves of crucial fat that the body needs. People are being talked into converting to the vegan religion because they have been led to believe that meat is dangerous to the body…We eat plants to cleanse, We eat animal foods to feed our body, Meat is high in phosphorous and acts as an accelerator so we need plant foods as a break to calm things down..that’s it..one must consume both for optimum health.  We as humans are designed to move and exercise..who’s doing this..not many..when I am jogging at 6 am winter and summer I see nobody..ok its a bit early, but even if I did it at 9am would I see anybody ?..ok many go to the gym which is fine but not enough people. You have read I hope some of my previous articles ( the destruction of society’s social fabric and psychotropic drugs) that discusses how important sleep is.

Conclusion

I therefore conclude that the massive changes outlined in the last 6 paragraphs is the leading cause of Alzheimer’s and all other chronic diseases that have exploded in this century, and to end with a statement that was first coined by Dr Joel Wallach..if we don’t stop this poisonous onslaught, parents will be burying their children…PARENTS WILL BE BURYING THEIR CHILDREN, if the parents eat the correct food without contracting ALZHEIMER’S.


 Check out the Previous Article in this series:

 Cognitive Disorders-Alzheimer’s I


References

  1. Myelin,Deep cervical lymph nodes, innate immune system, PAMPS,NALP3, Dermorphin, Thyrotropin releasing hormone,(TRH), Secretin  Wikipedia
  2. Important link between Brain & immune system found 2015 Bref Stetka Scientific America
  3. The role of ApoE  in Microglia regulation in Neurodegeneration 2017 Oleg Butovsky Cure Alzheimer’s fund
  4. Microglia activation in Alzheimer’s disease: Association with ApoE genotype 1998 Egensperger, Kosel, Von Eitzen, Graeber,  NCBI
  5. Human ApoE4 increases microglia reactivity at Amyloid Beta plaques in a mouse model of Amyloid beta deposition 2014 Rodriguez, Tai, La Du, Rebeck NCBI
  6. Breakthrough research into causes of Alzheimer’s disease, but cure still proves elusive Teo Jun Heng 2016 Mims Today
  7. Alzheimer’s disease  * Autistic spectrum disorder: Is there any association  2016 Khan S, Norendra, Mushtag, Zahran, Khan SA, Kamal NCBI
  8. The impact of opioid analgesics on the gastrointestinal tract function and the current management possibilities Leppert Wojciech 2012 NCBI
  9. Autism an overview Lewis Mehl-Madrona
  10. Multiple sclerosis & Alzheimer’s disease 2008 Dal,Bianco,Bradl, Frischer, Kuteinigg, Jellinger, Lassman NCBI
  11. Histadelia  drkaslow.com

My name is Eric Malouin

In terms of my heritage I am not a thoroughbred, I am half English from England and half French Canadian from Quebec. Having spent the last 10 years in Medical research I thought that it was time to share my passion for true health to anybody interested in maintaining health without using conventional medicine. Once in the distant past I lived off conventional grocery shelves until you visit the man in the white coat and then a light shines through the darkness that you had not realized you were in… I was in..the twilight zone….I cured my own problems using natural methods, although they were not a big deal since I have always exercised..jogging every morning and tennis 12 hours/week, swimming but I was eating a lot of devil food that was causing my body to become unbalanced..an easy fix..reprogrammed my taste buds and gave the food back to the devil…lol

I hope you enjoy the articles……

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