In the previous article we introduced the importance of water as an essential nutrient for the body not only to provide the basis of essential fluids in the body, but to support the efficient functioning of our cells with the correct type of water so named ‘Easy water’. In this article we will continue our discussions on water specifically in terms of cellular hydration which is one element to slow the ageing process and to prevent ill health.

Cellular hydration

It must be understood that if you are unlucky to visit the clinics or hospitals of Mordor and they feel the need to hydrate your body with say 5 litres of fluids to hydrate your body it does not necessarily translate into water entering the cells.  The medical myth that, if you ingest an amount of water or fluids in your body and the urine is clear that you have hydrated the body. In fact, this just shows you that if the urine is clear it means the water has gone into the bloodstream and flushed out through the kidneys without entering the cells, so, cellular hydration has not been achieved. In ageing for example, we lose somewhat the ability to move water from the vasculature (Extracellular environment) into the intercellular space of the cells, since, as we mentioned earlier, water is the ultimate scrubber mechanism to eliminate metabolic exhaust from the cellular environment. In terms of daily water intake from the diagram ‘Body fluids’ a reasonable range would be around 2.5litres. Dr Zach Bush agrees with this saying that we should be drinking 1 ounce of water for every kg of body weight which equates to a person weighing 75 kg should be drinking 75 ounces of water/day = 2.2 litres/day. 

The disease  process I – Inflammation/Oxidative stress

According to Dr Zach Bush an MD who specialises in endocrinology and metabolism, inflammation is a result of the accumulation of oxidative compounds within the cells and the bloodstream, which is largely due to the lack of interaction of hydrogen and water, since water is the main carrier of hydrogen. I would say it plays a part in the inflammatory process, but it is connected to oxidative stress within the mitochondria and its inability to generate fuel or energy production that advances the ageing process and ill health.  As Dr Lee know ( an ND that we referenced in the previous article) points out that the mitochondria, of which there can be between hundreds to thousands within a cell, depending on the type of cell.

Mitochondrial dysfunction I

If supply exceeds demand, then the ETC slows down, running the risk of leaking electrons that have transformed into oxygen producing toxic free radical superoxide, that can potentially cause damage to the mitochondria. This is why it is not a good idea to eat before going to bed, since this may leak excessive free radicals from the ETC, due to the unused energy while we sleep. Alternatively, individuals that are regularly subjected to cold temperatures such as those living in more colder northely locations, build up another type of fat tissue known as Brown adipose tissue (BAT).  What happens in this case is, the unused energy is used for BAT to generate heat as opposed to energy.  Individuals who live in tropical areas of the globe all year round have very little BAT so their energy production is purely used for movement.  The siituation is worse if those individuals live a sedentary lifestyle as well as living in a topical climate.   

Mitochondrial dysfunction II

Dr Lee Know has given us a great insight to potential mitochondrial damage, informing us that the histone protection of normal DNA is not present in mitochondrial DNA, so the probability of free radicals damaging the DNA genes is relatively high, but providing the level of free radical production is not excessive, glutathione peroxidase converts the damaging superoxide to harmless water.  Also, Nitric Oxide is produced in the mitochondria that reacts with oxygen, generating yet another damaging free radical called Peroxynitrite. The risk of free radical damage can be largely avoided depending on the lifestyle of the host, and thus the supply and demand of energy and the supply of oxygen. There appears to be very little problem with the host that exercises regularly, constantly using up the energy produced, and even better, if the host lives in a colder climate, or even the homeless person that is constantly struggling to find a meal who will generate very little, if any excess ATP.  On the other hand, the well fed sedentary individual is at a greater risk of free radical leakage, since they have plenty of fuel but they are not using it. The Mitochondria are also the initiators of apoptosis ( cell death ) so mitochondria dysfunction can also lead to apoptosis dysfunction which potentially can lead to the big C.

Hydration and phase angle

So I digress a little, but it is important to know the implication of mitochondrial dysfunction and the disease process and the critical need for cellular hydration.  Bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements, was originally used to measure body fat by measuring the electrical impedance (resistance to electrical current flow) through body tissue. Today, it is used to measure the integrity of cell membranes, in terms of how much water can enter the cell to achieve optimum hydration. With the instrument in place, the total Physiological Reactance (similar to resistance but it takes into account inductance from motor coils and capacitance) and physiological Resistance can be measured to establish the cells ability to hold an electrical charge indicating the cells ability to hydrate. The phase angle plotted on a graph would be linear as shown in the diagram below, the higher the phase angle the better.

The Bioelectrical impedance instrument is connected to an individual by connecting leads to a finger, wrist, ankle and toe and injecting a 50  kilohertz frequency AC signal to the body and measuring the phase angle, which is shown as a time delay between the voltage and current waveforms. The period ( 1 revolution or 360 degrees) of each wave is 20 microseconds :

If anybody has studied electrical engineering they will recognise the current and voltage sinusoids, because a generator or motor turns 360 degrees counted by the number of revolutions/minute. If both waves perfectly superimpose each other they would be ‘in phase’, but there is a time lag between both sine waves as shown in the diagram, and the difference in time is the lag time, where it can be evaluated as a phase angle, if the sine wave was drawn as a circle as shown below:

So once the Reactance (X) and Resistance(R) values are known the Impedance (Z) can be geometrically calculated to produce the phase angle.  A company called ‘Biodynamics’ sells a product called BIA 450 Bioimpedance analyzer for approx $2500 or alternatively, visiting a clinic once a year, such as the clinic of Dr Zach Bush in Virginia can measure the phase angle of your body and ascertain the health and hydrated state of your cells.  Typical measurements range from 3.5 ( near to death) to 10 ( regarded as healthy ), and as Dr Bush points out, his patients with cancer typically measure 4.5, but most healthy people measure between 6-8. So the phase angle is a direct correlation to the level of cellular dehydration and health status.

Hydration and electrical charge

In essence, it is the Electron Transport Chain that generates not only the energy of the cell but the electrical gradient across the cell membrane, allowing efficient transportation of nutrients, including the scrubbing medium, water, into the cell, and metabolic exhaust waste out of the cell. For a healthy person with a phase angle of 10-12, the estimate of the electrical gradient across the cell membrane is upwards of 10,000 volts which is staggering, considering a tiny, phospholipid membrane that is a few microns in size,  can hold such a huge charge.

How do we improve the phase angle of our cells

This measurement of cellular phase angle is a  measurement of your biology at any given time and to improve it, is a long term goal, since phase angle values move slowly.  This is not just improving the health of a single organ it is the entire body made up of 70 trillion cells that is being measured, in ascertaining its ability to initiate global cellular repair and more efficient energy production of each cell, carrying an average of thousands of mitochondrions.  According to Dr Bush his ‘Restore product’ can improve the phase angle…HOW ?..well Restore is a proprietary liquid supplement designed to restore gut health balance and all of the associative issues such as enhanced immune function. This supplement also contains Lignite, known as Brown coal, a soft brown sedimentary rock, formed from Peat with a high carbon content, containing other trace minerals including Germanium.  This substance is generally mined as a fuel for steam electric power generation. It also contains other nutrients including amino acids, so it has certain health benefits. The journal of clinical nutrition & Dietetics published an article in 2017 by John Gildea et al (Including Dr Zach Bush) entitled ‘Protective effects of Lignite extract supplement on Intestinal Barrier function in Glyphosate mediated tight junction injury’ showing how Glyphosate pesticide decreased TEER ( Transepithelial Electrical Resistance ) equating to a compromised gut barrier tissue integrity, while the Lignite extract supplement increased TEER.  It is also claimed that Lignite is an antioxidant. By all accounts the Restore product improves the electrical charge across the cell membrane, allowing more water to enter the cell, thus improving hydration by the use of the electrically charged organic minerals contained within the product including Lignite.  If you have a healthy gut microbiota and TJ integrity is not an issue I am not sure if the Restore product adds any more value.  To support the ‘macro membranes’ of the cell, it requires reducing ElectroMagnetic Fields (EMF, which is discussed in the next section) and an adequate intake of fibre and electrolytes. Fibre helps the body absorb water which will help in hydrating the cell without the need for more water.  This is an argument to blend your smoothies as opposed to juicing which essentially removes the fibre content, and like any fibre content in the colon will help with healthy bowel movements and water reabsorption.

EMF’s in the environment

Other ways of phase angle improvement concerns the modern meaning of ElectroMagnetic Fields (EMF) that refer to low level electrical signals derived from bluetooth devices such as head phones, cell phones etc and even WIFI routers. These tech devices that can have a disturbing effect on cellular electrical charges, thus reducing the cell’s ability to allow water entry, leading to dehydration and a lower phase angle.  Living near power grids can also be an issue from electromagnetic effects even more so if 3 phase powers lines have high power factors * generating excessive EMF’s.

*Power factor (PF) on Alternating Power (AC) grids refers to the lagging or leading of current vs voltage amplitudes.  As 3 phase power lines get out of phase the power factor is measured as a geometric angle (Cosine theta) value, more voltage can leak through the neutral wire from the 3 phases

The Gut, Tight Junction barrier

The tight junction firewall, mentioned in the last paragraph ( as discussed in detail in the articles on the microbiome and disease Part 2 ) are referred to as the Epithelium gut barrier.  This barrier is indeed made of Tight junctions referred to as Zonula Occludens which are semi permeable allowing only water, electrolytes and nutrients in and keeping out bacteria and toxins.   There is a relationship between EMF disturbance and the small intestinal epithelium. Between the epithelial cells are thousands of microscopic microtubules that resemble fibre optic cables passing light energy from one cell cytoplasm to the next, according to Dr Bush,  This dense matrix of epithelial cells and the tens of thousands of light transmitting microtubules, is one coherent mass of electrical energy that can be interrupted, not only by a dehydration state, but also by emf driven signals from cell phones, wifi energy etc, causing cells to resonant at the wrong frequency compromising barrier integrity. These EMF transmission devices are part of our everyday life, so avoiding them is definitely challenging, but I suppose we could revert back to dial-up modems and no wireless network

Electrolyte water

The greatest electrolyte consumed by the general public is Sodium Chloride ( Salt NaCl). From a polarity standpoint, the Sodium molecule is positive and the chloride molecule is negative which is the hydration molecule.   Most RO filtration systems have a remineralisation stage to replace the  electrolytes that were removed from the filtration process. If you are using distilled water you can replace the electrolytes using electrolyte powder or liquid that can be purchased from health food stores. Epsom salts or Magnesium sulphate is beneficial to the body, combining sulphur and Magnesium, or Magnesium malate as a supplement. Some alternative ‘integrative’ medicine clinics have flotation baths such as in the clinic of Dr Bush, which are filled with Magnesium sulphate providing benefits toward hydration and mitochondrial function since ATP requires magnesium to work.


So folks, it is not possible to acquire an accurate integrity measurement of your cells, mitochondriaL function, and hydration status from a blood test.  You can take all of the required nutrients, and exotic health food supplements, follow a healthy diet, and a detox regimen, but these healthy pathways could be hampered, if your cellular phase angle is down in the dumps and your not getting water into the cells. If you are beginning your journey to improve your health, and you are making necessary dietary adjustments, and avoiding foods that poison the human body, then the next step is to consider a whole food supplement that contains all 90 essential nutrients. Once this is established then you might consider ‘drilling down’ to the basic components of the body, improving your cellular health, and improving your cellular hydration status and making your mitochondria work more efficiently especially the ETC.

“ see, now that pisses me off, first of all we have more than 400 plaintiffs and let’s be honest we all know their are more out there , they might not be the most of sophisticated of people and they do know how divide and 20 million dollars isn’t shit when u split it between them. second of all these people don’t dream about being rich they dream about being able to watch their kids swim in a pool without worrying that they’ll have to have a Hysterectomy at the age of 20 like Rosa Diaz a client of ours who had their spine Deteriorate like Stan Bloom another client of ours, so before u come back here with another lame ass offer i want u to think how much your spine is worth Mr. Walker or what u might expect someone to pay u for your uterus ms Sanchez and then u take out your calculator and u multiply that number by a hundred anything less than that is a waste of our time!!!!!

[Ms. Sanchez picks up a glass of water] By the way, we had that water brought in especially for you folks. Came from a well in Hinckley.”

Quote from the Movie Erin Brockovich 2000

Check out the Previous Article in this series:

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose I (Phenols)

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose II (Lignans, Triterpenes, Phytosterols, Carotenoids and Fats)

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose III (Phenolic acids, sulphur,sulphides,sulphoxides )

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose IV (Glucosinolates, Sulforaphane, Indole-3-Carbinol)

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose V (Lipid distribution, absorbed fats, Criciferous Veg)

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose VI (Nutrients required for Liver Detox)

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose VII ( Seeds and the Omega Fatty Acids)

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose VIII ( Nutrients required for cellular energy production)

Nutrients in Food and their bodily purpose IX ( Water I Properties and Body fluids)

References/Acknowledgments :

  1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology 2000 Elaine Marieb
  2. Textbook of Medical Physiology 2006 Guyton & Hall
  3. Dr Mercola interviews Dr Zach Bush
  4. About Restore 2017 highya
  5. Lignite, Transepithelial electrical resistance,  Biometrical Impedance analysis Wikipedia
  6. Why drinking more is water is not enough SOS
  7.  Phase angle measurements and calculations Biodynamics
  8. Protective effects of Lignite extract supplement on Intestinal Barrier function in Glyphosate mediated tight junction The journal of clinical nutrition & Dietetics published an article in 2017 by John Gildea et al (Including Dr Zach Bush)
  9. Movie quotes from Erin Brockovich Innocent English

Author : Eric Malouin


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